Driving & Walking Tours | Monuments | John Hunt Morgan in Kentucky | Fort Heiman
Louisville, KY
33. Confederate Monument
Convergence of 2nd and 3rd Streets, Louisville (Jefferson County)
Granite base with three bronze figures, 1895
Inscription (North Face of Pedestal): Our Confederate Dead 1861-1865
Inscription (South Face of Pedestal): Tribute to the rank and file of the armies of the south by the Ky. Women's Confederate Monument Association
Inscriptions (East and West, above figures): C. S. A.

The largest of Kentucky's Civil War monuments was erected by the Kentucky Women's Confederate Monument Association in 1895. Led by Susan P. Hepburn of Louisville, the organization raised $12,000 to construct this 70-foot-tall monument. It is located on the northwest edge of the University of Louisville campus, near what later became the site of the J. B. Speed Art Museum.

Four tiered granite steps support the main pedestal, which is topped by a 95-inch-tall bronze figure of an infantryman holding a rifle down in front of him with both hands. Smaller pedestals on the east and west sides support life-sized bronze figures. The east figure is an artilleryman holding a ramrod; the west figure is a cavalryman drawing a sword. The figures were created by Ferdinand von Miller, an internationally-known German sculptor, and multiple casts were sold through monument companies (Raleigh, North Carolina has one), a typical practice. Additional decorative details include cannon balls in relief, crossed swords, and the seal of the Confederate States of America.

The completion date was significant because, in 1895, Louisville hosted the 29th annual convention of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). It was the first time this annual meeting of veterans of the Union Army was held north of the Mason Dixon Line, and it was a major event in the community. The dedication of the grand Confederate monument was a major effort to honor the Confederacy at a time when 150,000 loyal Unionists had converged on the city.

Initially, it was believed that young sculptor Enid Yandell of Louisville might receive the commission for the monument, making it the first major commission of her career. But after a long, hotly-debated process, the commission was passed to the local Muldoon Monument Company, and von Miller's figures were selected. Newspaper articles hinted that the gender of Miss Yandell was having an impact on the decision and indeed, female sculptors often faced challenges obtaining commissions for public works. But, in fairness to the Kentucky Women's Confederate Monument Association, other factors likely contributed as well, including the fact that the local sculptor's mother had a prominent role in the Monument Association. Enid Yandell was, after all, only in her early twenties at the time, with minimal experience, although she had obtained a coveted spot in the workshops of the World's Columbian Exposition at the start of the decade. The rejection slowed her down little, for she soon gained several important commissions, including two for Louisville, and became one of the best-known women sculptors in America at the turn of the century.


Rank Kentucky's Civil War monuments by height. Create a graph of the heights, from tallest to shortest.

34. John Breckinridge Castleman Monument
Cherokee Triangle, Louisville (Jefferson County)
Bronze equestrian figure on granite base, 1913

Inscription: Erected in honor of John Breckinridge Castleman-Born June 30, 1841-Died May 23, 1918 By friends who loved and respected him as a noble patriot, a gallant soldier, a useful citizen-Major Gen. C. S. A. retired Brigadier Gen., U. S. A.

One of only two equestrian Civil War monuments in the state, this statue was erected in 1913. The bronze inscription plaque was added after the general's death in 1918. The 15-foot-high monument with a 12x20-foot base occupies the center of a traffic circle at the intersection of Cherokee Road and Cherokee Parkway on the edge of Cherokee Park.

Although Castleman rose to the rank of major general in the Confederate Army, here he is depicted as a horseman in civilian dress. This honors his interests and achievements later in life, as founder of the American Saddlebred Horse Association. The champion horseman is shown riding one of his mares, Carolina.

Born in Lexington in 1841, John B. Castleman joined John Hunt Morgan's men in 1862 and led guerrilla missions of his own as well. His escapades included attempting to free POWs from Camp Douglas near Chicago and burning U. S. supply boats at St. Louis. In October 1864 he was captured and sentenced to death for spying, but President Lincoln suspended the execution. After Lincoln's assassination, Castleman was banished from the United States until pardoned in 1866. Back in Kentucky, Castleman settled in Louisville, obtained a law degree, established an insurance company, and revived Louisville's militia unit. The unit volunteered for service during the Spanish-American War and invaded Puerto Rico. Castleman was promoted to brigadier general and served as military governor of that island. His many varied careers include two stints as Kentucky’s Adjutant General, as well as founder and first commissioner of Louisville’s park department.


Research efforts to clean and restore this bronze sculpture. What happens to bronze when it is exposed to the elements over time? What steps are taken to preserve outdoor sculpture? As a portfolio entry, create an illustrated report of the steps of bronze restoration, focusing on the science aspects.

Investigate the American Saddlebred horse breed. Where did it originate? Compare this breed to the race horses that run the Kentucky Derby.

What is a POW?

35. August Bloedner Monument
Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville (Jefferson County)
Limestone headstone, 1861

Inscription: (In German) Here rest the first martyrs of the 32nd , the first German regiment of Indiana. They were fighting nobly in defense of the free Constitution of the United States of America. They fell on the 17th day of December, 1861, in the battle at Rowlett's Station, in which one regiment of Texas Rangers, two regiments of infantry, and six pieces of rebel artillery, in all over three thousand men, were defeated by five hundred German soldiers.

Probably the first Civil War monument in Kentucky, this tombstone was initially erected at Fort Willich near Munfordville, to mark the graves of men killed in the Battle of Rowlett's Station. In 1867, the bodies were exhumed and moved to the National Cemetery in Cave Hill.

The face of the marker is decorated with an eagle perched atop a crossed cannon and flags. This relief is flanked by laurel and oak leaves. The monument was carved by August Bloedner, a veteran of the Battle of Rowlett's Station, from a block of limestone he acquired near the battle site.

louisville_bl.JPG (10621 bytes)
The battle occurred after Confederate forces destroyed the L&N Railroad bridge over the Green River in Hart County. Union troops constructed a pontoon bridge in its place, but faced a large Confederate force when they crossed it. In spite of the sentiments recorded on the headstone, the battle was considered indecisive.

Investigate the concept of a German-American regiment, considering the immigration of Germans to the region just before the War. Did German culture impact your community as a result of this immigration? How?

Then research the following statistic: One-half million foreign soldiers served the Union during the Civil War.

What is a pontoon bridge? When are they used? Find illustrations of pontoon bridges and create a model based on the images you find.

36. Union Monument
Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville (Jefferson County)
Granite headstone with bronze plaque, 1914
louisville_u.JPG (10713 bytes) Inscription: In Memory of Unknown Union Soldiers in This Cemetery 1861-1865 Erected by Kentucky Comrades—1914

Located in the Civil War veteran area of Cave Hill, this 1914 rough-cut granite tombstone honors the unknown Union soldiers buried there.

37. General Lovell Harrison Rousseau Monument *
Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville (Jefferson County)
Granite sarcophagus form
Front Inscription: Lovell Harrison Rousseau Representative Indiana Legislature 1844, Captain Indiana Volunteers, Mexican War, 1846-47. Representative and Senator Kentucky Legislature 1860. Colonel 5th Ky. Infantry Louisville Legion, Brigadier and Major General U.S. Vols. Civil War 1861-65, Kentucky Member of Congress, 1866-67. Brigadier and Brevet Major General U.S. Army, 1867-69. Born in Lincoln Co., Ky. Aug. 4, 1818. Died in New Orleans, La., Jan. 8, 1869.
Rear Inscription: Rousseau Erected by Order of Committee Maj. W. P. McDowell, Chairman.

Lovell Harrison Rousseau was born in Stanford, Kentucky (Lincoln County) in 1818. An attorney and congressman, Rousseau raised troops for the Union and served as colonel of the 3d Kentucky Infantry. He fought in battles at Shiloh, Perryville, Chickamauga, and Nashville, and was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers and then major general. Rousseau returned to Congress after the War and was forced to resign and censured for attacking another representative in the Capitol Building. Within a few months, however, he was reelected to fill the vacancy caused by his own resignation. He returned to the Army in 1867, where he served in Alaska, then as commander of the District of Louisiana during Reconstruction. He died in 1869 and is actually buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

This rectangular monument, approximately five-feet-by-eight-feet, is constructed of granite with polished granite panels on all four sides. The corners of each polished panel are ornamented with stars.


Are the Civil War monuments in Cave Hill Cemetery located in the same section? Compare these monuments, writing at least three paragraphs about how they are alike and different.

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