22A - The Door was Left Open!
Great Raid, July 3, 1863
  • John Hunt Morgan entered Kentucky July 2 with about 2,500 men who swan the rain swollen Cumberland River - many naked, not to be encumbered with soggy clothes. The rebel yell of the on-coming nude men took the Union scouts by surprise.
  • Columbia was on a Union defense line stretching from London to Bowling Green. Only July 3, 1863, about 150 men of the 1st Kentucky Cavalry and portions of the 2nd and 45th Ohio Volunteer Infantry were in Columbia. The thin Union line was no match for Morgan's Cavalry.
  • A Columbia resident observing the shooting and horsemen galloping down the street later recalled. "I ran to the window, and looking out I saw a Union soldier going down the road at full speed, his head and body bent low on the side of his horse, a few feet behind him were four or five men in gray in hot pursuit, shooting as rapidly as they could with pistols... I expected at every fire to see him fall from his horse, but in less time than I have taken to tell it, they were over the hill in the direction of town and out of sight... in a few moments I saw Union soldiers cautiously making their way over the brow of the hill from the direction of town. I could see Federal and Confederate soldiers, but they could not see each other. Soon skirmish fire opened up from both sides. The Federals were evidently deceived as to the force with which they were contending. I could see there were indications of quite an army over the hill."
Directional Signage:
  • Gate Petroleum Company -- 100 Hudson Street
    Coming from the Columbia Square, exit on to Hwy 61/80 (Burkesville Street). Continue to the blinker light. The sign is on the right at the side of the parking lot of Gate Service Station. The station is on the corner of Burkesville and Hudson Streets.
  • Going north, the Raiders came on this same route, going toward Columbia. Gate Service Station, parking and the sign are on the left at the blinker light.

"Balls whizzed in both directions. Then I heard a yell - the like of which I had never heard - the Confederate war cry when advancing to battle, and I saw the line of soldiers as they dashed over the brow of the hill."
Confederate casualties were 2 killed and 2 wounded. Union losses were the same
22B - Frank Lane Wolford (1817 - 1895)
  • Adair County native, organized 1st Kentucky Cavalry (US) in 1861. His men knew little about the drill and discipline but had the utmost confidence in Wolford and he in them. The soldiers supplied their own horses and tack. Those unable to were docked a portion of pay until their obligations were met. Wolford told his men that a true soldier could not be a thief or marauder. He believed private property of friend and foe should be protected.
  • The "Wild Riders" as the 1st was known fought at the Battles of Wildcat Mountain, Mill Springs and Perryville, but mostly they guarded Kentucky, protecting railroads, bridges and supply depots. Confederate cavalry, including General John Hunt Morgan and his raiders, kept the Union forces in Kentucky constantly on guard and in pursuit.
  • Morgan's great raid was delayed July 4, 1863, at the Battle of Tebbs Bend, after which Union General Ambrose E. Burnside issued orders for Generals Henry Hobson, James Shackelford, and Col. Wolford to pursue Morgan and his command of 2,500 men. It took 24 days of hard riding, through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio with few pauses and little to eat or drink to finally capture Morgan and his few remaining men near Stubenville, Ohio. After Morgan's capture, Shackelford berated him harshly, but Wolford intervened and stopped the abusive language. Appreciative, Morgan gave Wolford his silver spurs and Wolford treated Morgan to a chicken dinner at a nearby hotel. Later, Morgan and some of his men were taken to the Ohio State Penitentiary.
  • In 1864 Wolford was presented a sword as a token of appreciation for his distinguished service. He used this chance to denounce Lincoln for the policy of enlisting African American soldiers. As a result, Wolford was dishonorably discharged. Lincoln offered to restore Wolford to his command if he would publicly tone down hostile parts of his speech. Wolford refused, and bid the 1st Kentucky farewell.
Directional Signage:
  • Col. Frank Lane Wolford Sign -- First Kentucky Realty/Auction,
    207 Campbellsville St., Columbia
    - Coming from the north on Hwy 55 (Campbellsville Street), as one enters Columbia there is a cemetery on the hill to the right. At the end of the cemetery's wooden fence is the First Kentucky Realty/Auction. Pull into the parking lot, read the sign and walk to see Wolford's gravesite.
23 - CAMP BILLY WILLIAMS (near Columbia and Neatsville)
  • In December 1861 Union Col. Frank Wolford,with companies A,B,C,and H of the 1st Kentucky Cavalry, was ordered to Camp Billy Williams, named for the owner of the farm on which the camp was located.
  • Soldiers at the camp hauled corn to Webb’s Cross Roads (now the junction of SR 76 and US 127)about eight miles distant, following Damron Creek Road. Once there, they guarded the large stores of forage procured by 1st Kentucky Quartermaster Lt. Col. Silas Adams. The cumbersome supply lines, crucial to military movements, were a favorite target of Rebel raiders. The 1st Kentucky constantly scouted the heavily forested countryside surrounding Camp Billy Williams to keep the raiders at bay.
  • The location of Camp Billy Williams was chosen for its access south to Jamestown on the Cumberland River and west to the thriving community of Neatsville, a steamboat terminal on the Green River. Home Guards in Neatsville alerted the troops of an approaching enemy by striking an anvil or bass drums.
  • William Honnell, a young Presbyterian minister, was with the 1st Kentucky throughout the war. He stayed on the field during battles, caring for the wounded and encouraging deeds of valor.
  • Tradition holds that Honnell helped move the body of Confederate Gen. Felix Zollicoffer during the battle of Mill Springs to prevent it from being trampled. Honnell was a graduate of Miami University in Ohio and completed theological studies at Centre College in Danville. He served as a missionary in Kansas and was influential in the decision making Kansas a free rather than a slave state.
Directional Signage:
  • 1997 Dunnville Road -- Coming from the north on Hwy 55 (Campbellsville Road), enter Columbia city limits and turn left at the light onto Hwy 206 (Fairgrounds Street). Go 12 miles until the road splits near a brick church on the right. Bear right on Dunnville Road. Go 1.8 miles. Sign is on the right.
  • Coming from the south, go to Columbia Square. Exit on Hwy 55 N (Campbellsville St). At 2nd light, junction 206 (Fairgrounds St.) turn right. Go 12 miles until the road splits near a brick church on the right. Bear right on Dunnville Road. Go 1.8 miles, sign is on the right.
Adair County Civil War Sites

Patrick Bridgewater House – Morgan’s headquarters in July 1863 prior to his fight at Tebbs Bend. 2,500 CS troops camped on this farm and along the road toward Campbellsville.

Camp Boyle/Camp Gilbert – North bank of Russell Creek, Columbia, KY. Used a encampment area for Union troops protecting the route from Lebanon to the Cumberland River and later as protection against guerillas. [Troops in this camp 1st IL Artillery Battery M 12/62; 1st KY Cav.; 5th KY Cav., 3rd KY Inf. 11/61; 10th KY Inf. 12/61

Col. Frank Wolford’s Grave – Grave of Union Col. Of 1st KY Cavalry. Columbia Cemetery Hwy 55, Columbia, KY.

Union Regiments Organized in Adair County – 9th KY Vol. Infantry, Col. Benjamin Grider; 3rd KY Vol. Infantry, Col. Bramlett; 1st KY Cavalry, Co. frank Wolford ?; 13th KY Vol. Infantry; and 13th KY Cavalry

Confederate Regiments Organized from Adair County – 4th KY Infantry organized near Clarksville (Camp Boone?).

Skirmish at Gradyville – December 12, 1861

CS Gen. Hyland B. Lyon Raid – CS raid late in war many KY courthouses burned Columbia'’ spared.

Buildings on the Square
– Winfrey Hotel; Page Hotel; Cravens House; livery stable

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